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Regional Economic Communities

In recent years there has been a strong global trend toward increasing regional integration in the areas of trade and investment. Sub-Saharan Africa has a number of regional economic communities (RECs), each with similar goals of fostering cooperation and a degree of economic integration-typically as free trade areas, customs unions (free trade area with common external tariffs), or monetary unions.

Common Market for Eastern and Southern African (COMESA)

The United States has $14.1 billion in total (two ways) goods trade with COMESA countries during 2013. Goods exports totaled $8.4 billion; Imports totaled $5.7 billion.  The U.S. goods trade surplus with the COMESA countries was $2.7 billion in 2013.

Exports

 U.S. goods exports to COMESA in 2013 were $8.4 billion, down 6.0% ($536 million) from 2012.

Roughly 62% of U.S. exports to COMESA went to Egypt in 2013.  The top U.S. export markets in COMESA for 2013 were: Egypt ($5.2 billion), Libya ($812 million), Ethiopia ($678 million), Kenya ($651 million), and Djibouti ($170 million).

The top export categories (2-digit HS) in 2013 were: Machinery ($1.2 billion), Aircraft ($1.1 billion), Cereals (wheat) ($714 million), Vehicles ($551 million), and Mineral Fuel (oil) ($549 million).

Imports 

 U.S. goods imports from COMESA totaled $5.7 billion in 2013, a 16.6% decrease ($1.1 billion) from 2012.

Roughly 45% of U.S. imports from COMESA were from Libya. The top U.S. import suppliers from COMESA for 2013 were: Libya ($2.6 billion), Egypt ($1.6 billion) Kenya ($451 million), Mauritius ($338 million), and Ethiopia ($194 million).

The five largest import categories in 2013 were Mineral Fuel and Oil (crude) ($2.7 billion), Woven Apparel ($829 million), Knit Apparel ($564 million), Spices, Tea and Coffee (mostly coffee) ($253 million), and Fertilizers ($172 million).

Balance of Merchandise Trade

The U.S. goods trade surplus with COMESA was $2.7 billion in 2013, up 28.6% ($594 million) from 2012.  

Investment

U.S. foreign direct investment (FDI) in COMESA countries (stock) was $27.1 billion in 2012 (latest data available).

COMESA countries’ FDI in the United States (stock) was $3.1 billion in 2012 (latest data available), up 14.5% from 2011.

East African Community (EAC)

The United States has $1.8 billion in total (two way) goods trade with the Eastern African Community (EAC) during 2013. Exports totaled $1.2 billion; Imports totaled $597 million; The U.S. goods trade surplus with the EAC was $642 million in 2013.

Exports

U.S. goods exports to the EAC in 2013 were $1.2 billion, up 28.4% ($274 million) from 2012.

EAC countries combined would have been the United States' 73rd largest goods export market in 2013.

The U.S. export markets in EAC for 2013 were: Kenya ($651 million), Tanzania ($420 million), Uganda ($125 million), Rwanda ($25 million), and Burundi ($17 million).

The top export categories (2-digit HS) in 2013 were: Aircraft ($340 million), Machinery ($200 million), Electrical Machinery ($108 million), Optic and Medical Instruments ($94 million), and Pharmaceutical Products ($54 million).

U.S. exports of agricultural products to EAC countries totaled $127 million in 2013. Leading categories include: pulses ($23 million), and coarse grains ($22 million). 

Imports

U.S. goods imports from the EAC countries totaled $597 million in 2013, up 3.5% ($20 million) from 2012. 

EAC countries combined would have been the United States' 88th largest goods import supplier in 2013. 

The U.S. import suppliers from the EAC for 2013 were: Kenya ($451 million), Tanzania ($70 million), Uganda ($47 million), Rwanda ($24 million), and Burundi ($4 million).

The five largest categories in 2013 were: Knit Apparel ($171 million), Woven Apparel ($148 million), Spices, Coffee, and Tea (mostly coffee) ($119 million), Edible Fruit and Nuts (macadamia nuts) ($31 million), and Precious Stones ($22 million).

U.S. imports of agricultural products from EAC countries totaled $185 million in 2013. Leading categories include: coffee (unroasted) ($111 million), and tree nuts ($31 million).

Balance of Merchandise Trade

The U.S. goods trade surplus with EAC was $642 million in 2013, an 65.6% increase ($254 million) over 2012.

Investment

U.S. foreign direct investment (FDI) in EAC (stock) was $678 million in 2012 (latest data available).

EAC countries' FDI in the United States (stock) was not available in 2012. 

Southern African Customs Union (SACU)

The United States has $17 billion in total (two ways) goods trade with SACU countries during 2013. Goods exports totaled $7.6 billion; Imports totaled $9.4 billion. The U.S. goods trade deficit with SACU countries was $1.8 billion in 2013.

Exports

U.S. goods exports to SACU in 2013 were $7.6 billion, down 3.0% ($236 million) from 2013.

The SACU Countries, together would rank 35th as an export market for the United States in 2013.

Roughly 96% of U.S. exports to SACU went to South Africa in 2013.  The U.S. export markets in SACU for 2013 were: South Africa ($7.3 billion) Namibia ($207 million), Botswana ($82 million), Swaziland ($23 million), and Lesotho ($644 thousand).

The top export categories (2-digit HS) in 2013 were: Machinery ($1.6 billion), Precious Stones (gold) ($1.1 billion), Vehicles ($1.1 billion), Electrical Machinery ($428 million), and Special Other (low value shipments) ($403 million).

U.S. exports of agricultural products to SACU totaled $311 million in 2013.  Leading categories are: wheat ($31 million), dairy products ($28 million), poultry meat ($26 million), and planting seed ($24 million). 

Imports 

U.S. goods imports from SACU totaled $9.4 billion in 2013, down 0.6% ($59 million) from 2012.

The SACU Countries, together, would rank 36th as the largest supplier of imports to the United States in 2013.

Roughly 90% of U.S. imports from SACU were from South Africa. The U.S. import suppliers from SACU for 2013 were: South Africa ($8.5 billion), Lesotho ($359 million), Botswana ($283 million), Namibia ($263 million), and Swaziland ($59 million).

The five largest import categories in 2013 were: Precious Stones (platinum and diamonds) ($3.0 billion), Vehicles ($2.3 billion), Ores, Slag, Ash (slag, titanium, and uranium) ($716 million), Iron and Steel ($696 million), and Machinery ($405 million).

U.S. imports of agricultural products from SACU totaled $259 million in 2013. Leading categories include: wine and beer ($69 million), fresh fruit ($59 million), tree nuts ($42 million), and processed fruit and vegetables ($24 million).

Balance of Merchandise Trade 

The U.S. goods trade deficit with SACU was $1.8 billion in 2013, up 10.7% ($178 million) from 2012.

Investment 

U.S. foreign direct investment (FDI) in SACU countries (stock) was $5.6 billion in 2012 (latest data available), down 4.9% from 2011.

There is no information on the distribution of U.S. FDI in SACU countries.

Reported SACU countries’ FDI in the United States (stock) was $1.5 billion in 2012 (latest data available), up 55.4% from 2011.

There is no information on the distribution of SACU countries FDI in the United States

West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA)

Members of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (also known by its French acronym UEMOA) are Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger, Senegal, and Togo. UEMOA member countries are working toward greater regional integration with unified external tariffs.

The United States has a $3.1 billion in total (two-way) goods trade with UMEOA in 2013. Exports totaled $2.1 billion; Imports totaled $1.0 billion; The U.S. goods trade surplus with UMEOA was $1.1 billion in 2013.

Exports

U.S. goods exports to UMEOA countries in 2013 were $2.1 billion, up 48.0% ($695 million) from 2012.

UEMOA countries combined would have been the United States' 59th largest goods export market in 2013.

The U.S. export markets in UMEOA for 2013 were: Togo ($956 million), Benin ($607 million), Senegal ($230 million), Cote d’ Ivoire ($168 million), Burkina Faso ($77 million), Mali ($50 million), Niger ($46 million), and Guinea Bissau ($6 million).

The top export categories (2-digit HS) in 2013 were: Mineral Fuel (oil) ($906 million), Vehicles ($628 million), Machinery ($135 million), Plastic ($64 million), and Pharmaceutical Products ($35 million).

U.S. exports of agricultural products to UMEOA countries totaled $101 million in 2013. Leading categories were: poultry ($20 million), rice ($12 million), and vegetable oil (excluding soybean oil) ($9 million).

Imports

U.S. goods imports from UMEOA countries totaled $1.0 billion in 2013, down 16.9% ($213 million) from 2012. 

UEMOA countries combined would have been the United States‘ 77th largest goods import supplier in 2013.

The U.S. import suppliers from UMEOA for 2013 were: Cote d’ Ivoire ($1.0 billion), Senegal ($17 million), Togo ($8 million), Burkina Faso ($6 million), Mali ($4 million), Guinea Bissau ($3 million), Benin ($3 million), and Niger ($2 million).

The five largest import categories in 2013 were: Cocoa ($797 million), Rubber ($105 million), Mineral Fuel (oil) ($56 million), Edible Fruit and Nuts (cashews) ($26 million), and Wood ($14 million).

U.S. imports of agricultural products from UMEOA countries totaled $933 million in 2013. Leading categories were: cocoa beans ($651 million) and rubber ($105 million).

Balance of Merchandise Trade

The U.S. goods trade surplus with UMEOA was $1.1 billion in 2013, up 481.7% ($909 million) from 2012.

Investment

Reported U.S. foreign direct investment (FDI) in UMEOA (stock) was $78 million in 2012 (latest data available).

UMEOA countries' reported FDI in the United States (stock) was not available in 2012.

5/7/14