North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
On January 1, 1994, the North American Free Trade Agreement between the United States, Canada, and Mexico (NAFTA) entered into force.
All remaining duties and quantitative restrictions were eliminated, as scheduled, on January 1, 2008.
NAFTA created the world's largest free trade area, which now links 450 million people producing $17 trillion worth of goods and services.
Trade between the United States and its NAFTA partners has soared since the agreement entered into force.
U.S. goods and services trade with NAFTA totaled $1.6 trillion in 2009 (latest data available for goods and services trade combined). Exports totaled $397 billion. Imports totaled $438 billion. The U.S. goods and services trade deficit with NAFTA was $41 billion in 2009.
The United States has $918 billion in total (two ways) goods trade with NAFTA countries (Canada and Mexico) during 2010. Goods exports totaled $412 billion; Goods imports totaled $506 billion. The U.S. goods trade deficit with NAFTA was $95 billion in 2010.
Trade in services with NAFTA (exports and imports) totaled $99 billion in 2009 (latest data available for services trade). Services exports were $63.8 billion. Services imports were $35.5 billion. The U.S. services trade surplus with NAFTA was $28.3 billion in 2009.Exports
The NAFTA countries (Canada and Mexico), were the top two purchasers of U.S. exports in 2010. (Canada $248.2 billion and Mexico $163.3 billion).
U.S. goods exports to NAFTA in 2010 were $411.5 billion, up 23.4% ($78 billion) from 2009, and 149% from 1994 (the year prior to Uruguay Round) and up 190% from 1993 (the year prior to NAFTA). U.S. exports to NAFTA accounted for 32.2% of overall U.S. exports in 2010.
The top export categories (2-digit HS) in 2010 were: Machinery ($63.3 billion), Vehicles (parts) ($56.7 billion), Electrical Machinery ($56.2 billion), Mineral Fuel and Oil ($26.7 billion), and Plastic ($22.6 billion).
U.S. exports of agricultural products to NAFTA countries totaled $31.4 billion in 2010. Leading categories include: red meats, fresh/chilled/frozen ($2.7 billion), coarse grains ($2.2 million), fresh fruit ($1.9 billion), snack foods (excluding nuts) ($1.8 billion), and fresh vegetables ($1.7 billion).
U.S. exports of private commercial services* (i.e., excluding military and government) to NAFTA were $63.8 billion in 2009 (latest data available), down 7% ($4.6 billion) from 2008, but up 125% since 1994.Imports
The NAFTA countries were the second and third largest suppliers of goods imports to the United States in 2010. (Canada $276.5 billon, and Mexico $229.7 billion).
U.S. goods imports from NAFTA totaled $506.1 billion in 2010, up 25.6% ($103 billion), from 2009, and up 184% from 1994, and up 235% from 1993. U.S. imports from NAFTA accounted for 26.5% of overall U.S. imports in 2010.
The five largest categories in 2010 were Mineral Fuel and Oil (crude oil) ($116.2 billion), Vehicles ($86.3 billion), Electrical Machinery ($61.8 billion), Machinery ($51.2 billion), and Precious Stones (gold) ($13.9).
U.S. imports of agricultural products from NAFTA countries totaled $29.8 billion in 2010. Leading categories include: fresh vegetables ($4.6 billion), snack foods, (including chocolate) ($4.0 billion), fresh fruit (excluding bananas) ($2.4 billion), live animals ($2.0 billion), and red meats, fresh/chilled/frozen ($2.0 billion).
U.S. imports of private commercial services* (i.e., excluding military and government) were $35.5 billion in 2009 (latest data available), down 11.2% ($4.5 billion) from 2008, but up 100% since 1994.
The U.S. goods trade deficit with NAFTA was $94.6 billion in 2010, a 36.4% increase ($25 billion) over 2009. The U.S. goods trade deficit with NAFTA accounted for 26.8% of the overall U.S. goods trade deficit in 2010.
The United States had a services trade surplus of $28.3 billion with NAFTA countries in 2009 (latest data available).
U.S. foreign direct investment (FDI) in NAFTA Countries (stock) was $357.7 billion in 2009 (latest data available), up 8.8% from 2008.
U.S. direct investment in NAFTA Countries is in nonbank holding companies, and in the manufacturing, finance/insurance, and mining sectors.
NAFTA Countries FDI in the United States (stock) was $237.2 billion in 2009 (latest data available), up 16.5% from 2008.
NAFTA countries direct investment in the U.S. is in the manufacturing, finance/insurance, and banking sectors.
NOTE: Refers to private services trade not including military sales, direct defense expenditures, and other miscellaneous U.S. government services.