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WTO Government Procurement Agreement

The WTO Agreement on Government Procurement (GPA) is a "plurilateral" agreement, which means that it applies to a number of WTO Members, but not all Members.

The GPA's membership is limited to the WTO Members that specifically signed the GPA or that have subsequently acceded to the Agreement. WTO Members are not required to join the GPA, but the United States strongly encourages all WTO Members to participate in this important agreement. Several countries, including China, Jordan, and Ukraine are currently negotiating accession to the GPA.

The 15 Parties to the GPA are: Armenia, Canada, the European Union (and its 28 Member States -- Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Cyprus, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom), Hong Kong China, Iceland, Israel, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Liechtenstein, the Netherlands with respect to Aruba, Norway, Singapore, Switzerland, Taiwan (Chinese Taipei), and the United States.

On March 30, 2012, the GPA Parties adopted a revision of the GPA. The revised Agreement expands the procurement covered under the GPA to provide U.S. goods, services, and suppliers with new opportunities to participate in central and sub-central procurement in the other GPA Parties. The revised Agreement also includes a significant improvement of the text of the Agreement by modernizing the text to reflect current procurement practices and clarifying its obligations. The revised Agreement entered into force on April 6, 2014 after ten parties, two-thirds of the Parties to the Agreement at that time, deposited their instrument of acceptance.   As of October 2014, twelve parties had deposited their instrument of acceptance.  The following GPA member countries have yet to deposit their instruments of acceptance and as such U.S. obligations to these GPA members are defined under the 1994 GPA: Armenia, Republic of Korea, and Switzerland.  

Links to the revised Government Procurement Agreement and the 1994 Government Procurement Agreement are below.

Revised GPA Text

Revised GPA Appendix I:  

Defines the coverage of each GPA Party's obligations under the revised GPA

  • Annex 1: central government entities
  • Annex 2: sub-central government entities
  • Annex 3: other entities
  • Annex 4: goods
  • Annex 5: services 
  • Annex 6: construction services 
  • Annex 7: general notes

1994 GPA Text

1994 GPA Appendix I

Defines the coverage of each GPA Party's obligations under the 1994 GPA

  • Annex 1: central government entities
  • Annex 2: sub-central government entities
  • Annex 3: all other entities that procure in accordance with the GPA
  • Annex 4: services that each Party covers under the GPA
  • Annex 5: construction services that each Party covers under the GPA
  • General Notes

GPA Parties

GPA Observers

Government Procurement Legislation of GPA Parties

Accessions to the GPA

USTR Waivers of Discriminatory Purchasing Requirements